This edition is in response to a number of appreciative remarks and useful suggestions made by the readers. In view of the suggestions, the following additions and alterations have been made. Some recent development in the description and characteristics of brown hill soils under forest, soils under forest, soil taxonomy, land degradation and watershed management have been included. The title of Chapter 9 has been changed to Soil Conservation alone, instead of Soil Erosion and Conservation. SI units have been used throughout the book. We have, however, retained quoted data in the original units. We are grateful to our colleagues, students, and other readers who have rendered invaluable help in various ways in the preparation of the second edition.